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Mosak, H.H., & Fasula, A. (2011). Transference in the light of Adlerian Psychology. Journal of Individual Psychology, 67, 343-348.
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Today’s adolescents, young adults, and adults suffer from a variety of issues stemming from the many changes in family structure, cultural demands, and the increasing pressures that rapid technological change bring to the educational and socialization process. These include an array of problems associated with anxiety, depression, mood disorders, interpersonal and business relationships, executive functioning, and body image, as well as family and social difficulties. Dr. Fasula approaches treatment from perspectives that include:
The goal of the therapeutic relationship is to develop the dialogue for learning new techniques for managing the emotions in such a way as to create an optimal level of functioning in all areas of life.
Dr. Fasula and Cesare Perlini, M.A. are board certified in EEG Biofeedback (Neurofeedback) through the Biofeedback Certification International Alliance (BCIA). Neurofeedback is an option for children, adolescents, adults, and the aging community who are looking for a supplemental and/or an alternative treatment option to medication for the treatment of anxiety, depression, attention, mood disorders, insomnia, chronic pain, and problems with alertness. Neurofeedback has been demonstrated to be useful in treating symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, Autism Spectrum Disorders, mood disorders, insomnia, certain developmental disorders, PTSD, chronic pain, peak performance, and addictions. For new clients, Dr. Fasula conducts an initial EEG assessment consisting of an analysis of 19 areas of the brain. This assessment, called a Quantitative EEG, takes approximately 90 minutes to complete. Using normative data to compare results, Dr. Fasula designs a specific, individualized protocol that engages the client in “teaching” their brain to respond in new ways so that new behaviors result more easily and quickly than when using therapy and medication alone. For optimal results, sessions are typically scheduled two-to-three times per week. For most clients, significant improvements in symptoms and behavior are experienced within 20 to 30 sessions.
Find out more about Neurofeedback in this video https://youtu.be/VULkRdPPVg4
Two forms of biofeedback treatment conducted by Dr. Fasula include Heart Rate Variability (HRV) Biofeedback Training and Temperature Biofeedback Training. HRV can be a powerful indicator of the health and state of the autonomic nervous system, positive and negative emotional states, and self-regulatory control. Both HRV and Temperature Biofeedback Training techniques can be used to treat various forms of anxiety, panic attacks, headaches, chronic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, and symptoms of Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS). Precise instruments measure physiological activity such as heart function, breathing, muscle activity, and skin temperature. These instruments rapidly and accurately “feed back” information to the user. The presentation of this information — often in conjunction with changes in thinking, emotions, and behavior — supports desired physiological changes. Over time, these changes can endure without continued use of an instrument (bcia.org). Heart Rate Variability Training can also be used for athletes interested in improving peak performance through the augmentation of the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a noninvasive measure of cardiac vagal tone.
Equine Assisted Psychotherapy (EAP) is a technique that utilizes horses as an important tool in the therapeutic processes. Unlike traditional talk therapy, EAP allows clients to bond with horses while engaging in self-discovery and behavioral modification as they complete therapeutic activities. Riding and horsemanship are not part of the therapeutic experience. Instead, various interactions and activities are accomplished with the horses. During a typical session, Dr. Fasula and Dr. Branch, both certified in EAP, work alongside an equine specialist. This format allows the psychologists to focus on the client’s learning and interaction while the equine professional focuses on safety as well as reads the horse’s body language, providing information throughout the session. Since EAP is a powerful, hands-on treatment, clients can expect a total of between six and eight sessions. EAP is used to help treat individuals, groups, and families struggling with a variety of issues such as anxiety, depression, ADHD, divorce, trauma, and addiction. Additionally, EAP has more recently been shown to be a powerful technique in assisting veterans suffering from PTSD. Businesses, organizations, and clubs also utilize EAP for team building exercises, developing trust, and enhancing communication skills.
Neurogenesis Center of Florida focuses on recognizing, utilizing and maximizing individual executive development. Identifying conceptual frameworks through individually designed tools, metrics, and protocols allows executives to realize his/her peak abilities. The program shows individuals measurable differences in performance and achievement creating empowerment, increased confidence and a broader perspective.
Frequently Asked Questions
Neurofeedback training is brainwave biofeedback. During a typical training, a few electrodes are placed on the scalp and the earlobes. Then, high-tech electronic equipment provides real-time, instantaneous audio and visual feedback about brainwave activity. There is no electrical current that is put into the brain; instead, the brain’s electrical activity is relayed to the computer and recorded (Hammond, 2006).
On average, it takes 40 sessions to make significant improvements in attention, behavior, anxiety, mood, alertness, etc.
The goal of the treatment is to teach children, adolescents, and adults to change the way their brain works, so that they can better manage and minimize the aforementioned issues. Neurofeedback is used to train individuals to change their brain wave patterns. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to monitor the brain waves and a system of positive reinforcement, the individuals learn how to make their brains become more functional and constructive. The result is that there is a significant reduction in various symptoms and improvements in behavior and emotion, relative to how well individuals learn to control their own brain function.
The initial assessment, called a Quantitative EEG, is a scientifically established method for evaluating brain function based on brain electrical activity mapping. In this form of functional brain imaging, the brain’s electrical activity, as measured in 19 areas on the head, is analyzed using complex mathematical and statistical tools in comparison to norms or averages. These norms are based on the electrical activity of thousands of individuals with no known neurological, developmental, or psychiatric disorders. This method of assessing brain function provides information about patterns of brain activation and communication that can then be related to difficulties in daily life functioning such as problems with attention, anxiety, mood, learning, or behavior.
Once the Quantitative EEG report is complete and reviewed in a feedback session, the clinician designs a specific protocol to “teach” the brain that enables the subject to change previously established patterns. For optimal results, the individual comes for neurofeedback sessions twice a week.
EEG is a measure of electrical changes in our brain that present as spikes, transients, or seemingly random events and rhythms. During a neurofeedback session, the clinician uses knowledge of brain anatomy, psychological testing, behavioral measurement, and QEEG to apply the principles of learning. As a result, specific brain activity patterns can be taught, established, or extinguished (i.e. learned or unlearned) (Kaiser, 2001).
Biofeedback is a non-invasive form of treatment. The clinician attaches sensors or electrodes to the body and these sensors provide a variety of readings or feedback which is displayed on the equipment for the individual to see. The signals typically measure skin temperature, muscle tension and/or brainwave function. Therapeutic support, in combination with this information, help individuals make significant changes in their feeling and performance in particular situations. At first the changes are so subtle they cannot be consciously perceived; however, over time the results of these changes become obvious. With practice, the new responses and behaviors can help to bring significant relief and improvement to a variety of limiting behaviors.
The key to Biofeedback training is that it teaches individuals self-regulation. That means that individuals are in control of their feelings, rather than being driven by them. It also means that over time, individuals become able to manage their own situation without dependency on professionals or the biofeedback sessions. Dr. Fasula uses Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback Training and Temperature Biofeedback Training to help individuals address and manage a number of conditions. Once the techniques are learned, individuals may never again require biofeedback therapy or only a “refresher” session now and then.
Typically, biofeedback treatment involves a regular series of sessions over a period of several weeks. On average, the course of treatment ranges between six and 12 sessions.